Chapter XIV

Fill in the gaps with the correct word(s) and then press "Check" to see your results. Correct answers will be entered into the text, while incorrect answers will remain blank so that you can try again.
As is true for muscles generally, the muscles of the face are named variously for their location, shape, and function. Of those named for location, note the , , and zygomaticus. The first two are so called because of their location on the forehead and temples respectively. The third is located in the area of the zygomatic bone, which gets its name from its joining (Grk. zyg-, “”) of the bones of the face and skull.

Muscles named for their shape include the , a flat, plate-like muscle that wrinkles the skin of the neck and depresses the jaw (from an unchanged Greek word meaning “flat thing," e.g., a tile or slab). Consider also the orbicularis oculi, a name you might be able to decode from the knowledge you have gained thus far. If you can identify oculi as a singular, you will know that this means “of the .” Orbicularis is probably a new word to you, but you might recognize that orb- relates to a circle (cf. English “orb,” “orbit”). Hence, you might guess that the orbicularis oculi is the muscle that surrounds the orbit of the eye. This muscle passes through the eyelids and is responsible for closing the eye (note that oculi could also be nominative , but this would not make any sense with the form orbicularis).

Other muscles get their name by their function: “” is a direct borrowing from the Greek word meaning “chewer,” an appropriate title given that this muscle is responsible for raising the lower jaw in that very process. The draws the angle of the mouth outward and accordingly gets its name as “the smiler’s muscle” (from the Latin for “one who laughs or smiles”). Other examples include the labii superioris and the depressor labii , the “lifter of the lip” and “depressor of the lower lip.” Observe the genitive singular of the comparative adjectives superior and inferior; this tells you that the adjectives modify lip (labium, pl. ), which is here in the genitive singular.

The presents an odd case, being a name derived from function, although it would appear to be called by its location. In fact it is apparently not named after its position at the cheek (Lat. -), but is rather a Latin word meaning “trumpeter,” since this muscle is strenuously used by such a person.